The tribes of the Aymara speaking people were probably organized in the following way: The Apu Mallku is an Aymara title meaning "supreme leader" or "king" was conferred on a Mallku or "prince" of a tribe among the Tiwanaku to be supreme leader. The Apu Mallku's mandate was to oversee a large network of Ayllus. He may have had a council made up people from the Ayllus to assist in the government. He may have ruled under the advice of a priest who was an Ancient Astronaut or had connections with them for instruction purposes. The Ayllus were the basic political and social units of pre-Inca Aymara life. They were essentially extended family groups but they could adopt non-related members, giving individual families more variation and security to the land that they farmed. They would often have their own huaca, or minor god, usually embodied in a physical object such as a mountain or rock (sometimes the body of an ancestor). A chief (called a Curaca) usually led them. The Ayllu were self-sustaining units and would educate their own offspring and farm or trade for all the food they ate. Their primary function was to solve subsistence issues, and issues of how to get along in family, and larger units. Each Ayllu owned a parcel of land, and the members had reciprocal obligations to each other. Therefore, the system of government had its roots based in agriculture.
A Tiwanaku Curaca Performing a New Year’s Rite
It is believed shortly before 500 B.C. the people of Tiwanaku began to make stone monoliths from rock. A monolith is a large stone, which is used to build a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
A Tiwanaku monolith statue
We must now go forward in time to understand what took place back at this time: After the decline of Tiwanaku other Aymara societies emerged, politically organized, the most important kingdoms were the Lupaqa and Qulla. The Incas were called without distinction by all Aymaristas the Qullas. All their territory together with the southernmost areas became the Qullasuyu. The Qulla were the ancestors of the Inca. They were descendants of the Aymara of Tiwanaku.
Viracocha above the Portal of the Sun at Tiwanaku
Viracocha was the god of everything to the Tiwanaku. In the beginning, he was the main god, but in the time of the Inca Inti, the Sun god became his equal and separate. The Tiwanaku had a special place for the worship of the Sun god and the Moon god.
The Gate of the Moon at Tiwanaku
Since Inti was the sun god. Inti was the source of warmth, light, and a protector of the people. Inti was considered the most important god by the Inca but not by the Tiwanaku. For the Tiwanaku Inti may have been the same person as Viracocha. Mama Quilla ("mother moon" or "golden mother") was a marriage, festival and moon goddess and daughter of Viracocha and Mama Cocha, as well as wife and sister of Inti. She was the mother of Manco Cápac, Pachacamac, Kon and Mama Ocllo. Mama Ocllo was the sister and wife of Manco Cápac. You will note all these gods were married to their sisters and brothers, and some may ask why? They may been the Ancient Astronauts themselves who as I said earlier were unable to reproduce like humans. They produced clones of themselves instead. To continue: Mama Ocllo was thought to have taught the Inca the art of spinning. The Inca probably multiplied the number of gods the Tiwanaku worshipped by adding some of their own to the list.
Pachamama daughter of Sun god at Tiwanaku
Mama Pacha (aka Pachamama) was the wife of Pachacamac and a dragoness fertility deity who presided over planting and harvesting. She caused earthquakes. The Inca had four types of origin myths based on tradition they learned from their ancestors.
1. Con Tici (also spelled Kon Tiki) Viracocha (some spelling alternatives are Wiracocha, Apu Qun Tiqsi, and Wiraqutra) sent forth his four sons and four daughters to establish a village. Along the way, Sinchi Roca was born to Manco and Ocllo, and Sinchi Roca is the person who finally led them to the valley of Cuzco where they founded their new village. Manco became known as Manco Cápac the first Inca ruler.
2. There were many myths about and Manco Capac coming to power. In one myth, Manco Cápac and his brother Pacha Kamaq (or Pachacamac) were sons of the sun god Inti/Viracocha and that is how they came to have power.
3. In another myth, Manco Cápac was sent with Mama Ocllo (others even mention numerous siblings) to Lake Titicaca where they resurfaced and settled on the Isla Del Sol, in Bolivia. This story may have some truth to it. During 1987-92, Johan Reinhardt directed underwater archaeological investigations off the Island of the Sun (Isle Del Sol), recovering Inca and Tiwanaku offerings. These artifacts are currently on display in the site museum of the village of Challapampa. In 2000, the international scientific group Akakor Geographical Exploring launched the expedition “Atahualpa 2000”. They found ruins of what appeared to be a temple and a submerged road dating back 1,000 to 1,500 years, the ruins belong to the Tiwanaku culture. Their conclusion was that the temple exists but it is not a submerged city. Attempts to bring the ruins to surface have faced resistance from the local population who are superstitious about disturbing the waters of Lake Titicaca. This was more than likely an underwater Ancient Astronaut base, which may have looked something like this:
Ancient Astronaut underwater base near the Isle Del Sol in Lake Titicaca
4. According to another Inti/Viracocha legend, Manco Cápac and his siblings were sent to the earth by the sun god and emerged from the cave of Puma Orco at Pacaritambo carrying a golden staff called the ‘tapac-yauri’. They were instructed to create a Temple of the Sun in the spot where the staff sank into the earth to honor the sun god Inti, their father (This tradition may have arisen at the time of the construction of Machu Picchu). During the journey, one of Manco's brothers (Ayar Cachi) was tricked into returning to Puma Orco and sealed inside, because his reckless and cruel behavior angered the tribes that they were attempting to rule or instruct. Pacaritambo is a quasi-mythical place believed to have been flooded by Lake Titicaca.
This may be true in the sense that Manco Capac and some other officers under the orders of the Supreme Leader Viracocha surfaced in a UFO off the coast of the Isle of Del Sol in a public show of power to the people gathered there as witnesses. The witnesses of course were the ancestors of the leaders and nobles of Tiwanaku.
The Isle Del Sol and ruins
The archeological evidence seems to indicate that the Inca were a relatively unimportant tribe until the time of Sinchi Roca, also called Cinchi Roca, who is the first figure in Inca mythology whose existence can be supported historically. Cusco was the aboriginal name of the city Qusqu. Although it was used in Quechua, its origin has been found in the Aymara language. The word itself originated in the phrase qusqu wanka ('Rock of the owl'). This concerned the foundational myth of the Ayar Siblings.
From about 500 B.C.-200 A.D., the earliest monuments began to be built by the people of Tiwanaku. The quarries, from which the stone blocks used in the construction of structures at Tiwanaku, came from lie at significant distances from this site. The red sandstone used in this site's structures has been determined by petrographic analysis to come from a quarry 10 kilometers away—a remarkable distance considering that the largest of these stones weighs 131 metric tons. At first most of their stonework was made of red sandstone, but that would not be the only type of stone they would use.
Tiwanaku sandstone quarry
This was the time when Tiwanaku is thought to have begun to be a place of important moral and cosmological power, a place made for pilgrimages.